A yr after a brand new Montana legislation stripped native well being boards of their rulemaking authority, confusion and energy struggles are making a patchwork oversight system which will change how public well being is run lengthy after the pandemic is over.

The law, which took impact final April amid criticism of masks mandates and different covid restrictions on companies, gave native elected leaders the ultimate say in creating public well being guidelines. Supporters stated elected officers could be accountable to voters in the event that they abuse that authority, whereas opponents stated the change would inject politics into well being selections.

Matt Kelley, CEO of the Montana Public Health Institute, a nonprofit centered on strengthening public well being techniques, stated native well being boards nonetheless have an obligation to guard their communities, however the legislation limits their energy to take action.

“Anyone who has ever been in a job the place they’ve a accountability for one thing however not the authority to really get that finished is aware of how exhausting that’s and the way unhealthy that feels,” Kelley stated.

The legislation was a part of a wave of payments handed in statehouses amid a pandemic backlash. At least 26 states adopted legal guidelines rolling again public well being powers. Montana legislators handed a few of the most restrictive adjustments, together with stopping limits on religious gatherings and banning employers — even hospitals — from requiring vaccination against covid-19 or some other illness.

Earlier than the brand new legislation, well being boards comprising appointees by native governments set public well being guidelines and accepted emergency well being measures for his or her areas. The measure limiting well being boards’ powers permits them to move orders in an emergency, although the elected officers can change or revoke these orders. Elected officers even have ultimate say in appointing a well being officer. However native well being departments’ and well being boards’ day-to-day operations are purported to be untouched by the brand new guidelines.

The legislation left county commissions to supervise county well being boards and metropolis councils to supervise metropolis well being boards. However for native governments with joint well being departments, the legislation is obscure; they’re left to outline their very own “governing physique” to offer oversight.

Because of this, these cities and counties have to transform agreements that outline how their joint boards function, stated Kelly Lynch, government director of the Montana League of Cities and Cities.

A number of haven’t figured it out. In some locations, the holdup has been native officers butting heads over who ought to get a vote and the way a lot sway every ought to get. In different areas, established our bodies haven’t outlined how they’ll function.

As of early April, 4 out of six of Montana’s most-populated counties — Missoula, Cascade, Yellowstone, and Gallatin — nonetheless hadn’t finalized their governing our bodies. That left public well being boards in limbo. Most of the well being officers caught in the center are new to the job after their predecessors give up or retired in the face of an more and more polarized public.

When D’Shane Barnett was employed as well being officer for the Missoula Metropolis-County Health Division, he anticipated the brand new guidelines to roll into place quickly after. A yr later, he’s nonetheless ready.

“The weirdest affect is that I don’t know who my boss is,” Barnett stated.

County spokesperson Allison Franz stated native officers hope to have a draft interlocal settlement prepared for county and metropolis leaders in June.

Till then, Barnett stated, he tries to verify all native authorities officers are on board together with his division’s actions. “To this point, all people is, nevertheless it received’t be that means endlessly,” he stated.

David Bedey, a Republican state consultant from Ravalli County who proposed the brand new legislation final yr, stated the thought to shift public well being authority to elected officers preceded the pandemic. Though politicians aren’t specialists in roadways, they craft the foundations of the street — and the identical thought ought to apply to public well being, he stated.

Bedey stated he’s stunned it’s taken localities this lengthy to determine governing our bodies, however he believes they’ll work it out.

“The concept right here was native jurisdictions and residents inside these jurisdictions would settle this amongst themselves,” Bedey stated. “If they’ve pending laws that want approval, that ought to provide them loads of motivation.”

John Felton, Yellowstone County’s well being officer, stated the legislation has created confusion in the state’s largest county. There, 4 jurisdictions — the county, the cities of Billings and Laurel, and the city of Broadview — overlap in oversight of a well being division, RiverStone Health, which has its personal clinics and gives medical companies past the scope of most public well being companies in the state.

Felton wonders how new oversight would possibly have an effect on future adjustments in non-covid areas of public well being, equivalent to meals prep guidelines or how tattoo artists wrap shoppers’ new ink. He’s ready to see how native leaders outline a governing physique’s interactions with different new legal guidelines, equivalent to one that restricts well being officers from getting between a enterprise and its shoppers.

However with covid circumstances low, these once-pressing questions appear to have fizzled out.

“With out that urgency and concern that somebody’s going to place in masking necessities or occupancy limitations, it type of will get forgotten,” Felton stated.

Even with the uncertainty, Felton stated, he’ll act if a public well being situation places individuals in danger: “I’ll simply do what I imagine is the best factor and kind it out later if somebody doesn’t like the way in which it was, or they suppose it was opposite to the intent of the foundations.”

Within the legislation, the authors wrote that a part of its function was to deal with points or situations created throughout a public well being emergency, to not hinder the non-emergency powers of native well being boards. Gallatin County Commissioner Joe Skinner, a supporter of the change, stated restaurant inspections, septic permits, and the like ought to be left to well being professionals.

“While you begin limiting individuals’s freedoms, closing companies, requiring sure issues like masks, that’s not a well being determination anymore,” he stated. “That’s a political determination that ought to be made by individuals which can be elected.”

For months, Skinner and his fellow county commissioners wished to be the only representatives on the brand new public well being authority governing board over the Gallatin Metropolis-County Health Division. Metropolis leaders from Bozeman and Belgrade objected to being shut out. County officers signed on to a proposal permitting a consultant from every metropolis, however some public well being employees — together with Kelley, a former Gallatin Metropolis-County well being officer — objected that the plan goes beyond the law by requiring the county’s approval of the well being board’s spending.

Bozeman Mayor Cyndy Andrus stated metropolis officers had been reviewing the newest proposal. “The legislature could have made a long-term determination primarily based on what I might name a short-term occasion,” she stated. “You realize, 99% of what public well being boards do isn’t pandemic-related.”

In Missoula, Barnett stated it should take time to grasp all the implications of the legislation. “This has added a layer of paperwork, and it brings fashionable opinion into public well being,” he stated. “There are most likely going to be results and ramifications from this invoice that we would not see for years.”

KHN reporter Jacob Owens contributed to this story.

Katheryn Houghton: [email protected], @K_Hought