Ask attorneys to determine Shakespeare’s best play about regulation and attorneys, and they’ll doubtless identify The Merchant of Venice. Law performs a central function in Measure for Measure and options in different performs as properly, notably Henry V and the much less well-known King John. However no play captures attorneys’ imaginations like Merchant, with its climactic court docket listening to, its well-known argument by Portia, and its meditation on justice and mercy in a authorized system. 4 hundred years after Shakespeare invented him, regulation professors and jurists proceed to moot Shylock’s case. Law critiques commit symposia to Merchant and courts quote the play repeatedly, not just for rhetorical ornament, however in assist of substantive rulings.
Merchant fascinates attorneys. But, in authorized phrases, the play is preposterous. The fundamental assumption on which the plot turns, that Shylock has a authorized proper to implement his contract and acquire a pound of flesh from Antonio, is absurd, as is Portia’s argument that, if it have been enforceable, the contract wouldn’t enable Shylock to shed a drop of blood. Furthermore, the concept Christians would discover giving or receiving curiosity on loans illegitimate was already an anachronism by Shakespeare’s time. As Harold Berman makes clear in his majestic historical past, Law and Revolution, each canon regulation and the regulation service provider had lengthy allowed for affordable curiosity on loans. “Usury” referred to extreme curiosity, which mirrored the sin of avarice.
Shakespeare, who elsewhere demonstrates an intensive data of regulation, certainly understood all this. However he had different targets on this play. Though Shylock’s case in opposition to Antonio is senseless as a authorized matter, it makes for nice theater, and it offers Shakespeare an opportunity to discover an everlasting and infrequently bitter theological debate. Furthermore, it permits him to replicate, pessimistically, on the capability of regulation to transcend cultural variations and unite antagonistic worldviews in a standard neighborhood. Merchant continues to preoccupy attorneys exactly as a result of of what it suggests about regulation’s limits.
Because the play begins, a Venetian named Bassanio desires to woo the fabulously wealthy Portia. To do that, he wants cash, however he has neither money nor credit score. So, he asks his pal Antonio to borrow the cash for him from the Jewish moneylender, Shylock. Antonio and Shylock hate each other, the previous as a result of Shylock prices curiosity on loans, which as a Christian Antonio contemns, the latter as a result of of the mistreatment he has suffered from Antonio and different Christians and since Antonio does not cost curiosity, which hurts Shylock’s enterprise. Nonetheless, Shylock agrees to lend Antonio the cash in trade for Antonio’s promise to offer him a pound of his flesh if he can’t make good on the mortgage—“a merry sport,” Shylock reassures him.
When the time involves pay, Antonio lacks the cash, and Shylock, who by now has suffered the added damage of seeing his solely daughter elope with a Christian, insists on implementing his bond. This places the Venetian state in a tough spot. Venice is a industrial heart with merchants from many various nations and cultures. The solely factor that holds these various peoples collectively is regulation, and particularly, contract regulation. If phrase will get out that Venice doesn’t implement contracts—even contracts like Shylock’s—merchants will take their enterprise elsewhere. Antonio explains to a pal that Venice has no selection however to implement the settlement:
The Duke can’t deny the course of regulation,
For the commodity that strangers have
With us in Venice, if it’s denied,
Will a lot impeach the justice of the state,
Since that the commerce and revenue of the town
Consisteth of all nations.
In court docket, the Duke of Venice calls on Portia, disguised as a “younger and discovered physician” of the regulation, to resolve the case. Portia remonstrates with Shylock, telling him that regardless that his authorized declare is legitimate, he ought to forgive Antonio’s debt. In response to her well-known plea for clemency (“[t]he high quality of mercy is just not strained”), Shylock insists on his rights, whereupon Portia springs a entice. Shylock can have what his contract permits, however solely what his contract permits, a pound of flesh precisely, and never a drop of blood with it—an apparent impossibility. Furthermore, Venetian regulation offers that an alien who threatens the life of a citizen, as Shylock has finished, is punishable by dying. The Duke permits Shylock to reside provided that he grow to be a Christian, an act that Elizabethans, for whom Shylock was a comic book villain, would doubtless have seen as an expression of Christian forgiveness.
The ugly remedy of Shylock by the play’s Christians makes up to date audiences cringe. Merchant is problematic for an additional purpose as properly. This play about regulation activates a authorized absurdity. Shylock’s contract can be void ab initio—invalid from the start. A contract calling for dying in case of breach can be unenforceable as in opposition to good religion and public order; the settlement may additionally be seen as a joke that didn’t ponder authorized enforcement, one thing steered by Shylock’s personal preliminary characterization of it. Portia’s decision likewise is preposterous. An inexpensive interpretation of the contract would enable Shylock no matter have been naturally incidental to its efficiency—and you’ll’t take flesh with out shedding blood. Portia’s ruling isn’t sensible (“[a] Daniel come to judgment”), it’s an apparent trick.
Shakespeare means to ask whether or not the Venetian system can work the place intercommunal divisions concern bedrock beliefs and methods of life. His reply is just not hopeful.
Shylock’s case, nonetheless, permits Shakespeare to discover (and take sides in) an outdated theological battle between two nice religions. The battle can’t be absolutely explored right here, however, briefly, Christians have traditionally distinguished Christianity from Judaism by arguing that theirs is a faith of “grace” versus “regulation.” In Christian understanding, persons are put proper with God by means of the mercy of Jesus Christ, the Son of God, who forgives the sins of those that consider in Him—versus Judaism, which, once more in Christian telling, mistakenly strives for righteousness beneath God’s regulation. Thus, in court docket, Portia tells Shylock:
Although Justice be thy plea, contemplate this:
That within the course of Justice none of us
Ought to see salvation. We do pray for mercy,
And that very same prayer doth train us all to render
The deeds of mercy.
Shylock’s legalism is an offensive caricature of Judaism, which additionally teaches forgiveness and mercy as important values. (For that matter, Portia’s antinomianism is a distortion of Christianity, which additionally values regulation, and the habits of Christians within the play offers the mislead her commendation of Christian mercy). Maybe Shakespeare, who apparently had by no means met a Jew, misunderstood the faith. Maybe he was merely an anti-Semite—although Shylock, not like different Elizabethan stage Jews, has redeeming qualities, and the Christians in Merchant, just like the fortune-hunting Bassanio, come off relatively badly. In his nice essay on the play, “On Christian and Jew,” Allan Bloom suggests a extra believable clarification. Shakespeare exaggerates the variations between Christianity and Judaism as a result of he has some extent to make in regards to the limits of tolerance in a political neighborhood.
For the folks of Shakespeare’s day, Bloom writes, Venice represented the hope that society may transcend spiritual and cultural variations by means of commerce—or, relatively, by means of industrial regulation. Classical liberal thinkers would name later it the doux commerce thesis: enable folks to commerce freely with one another and they might ignore spiritual and different variations, which get in the best way of revenue, and reside collectively peaceably. The give-and-take of the market would prepare folks to cooperate with each other and forego proselytizing. All that was needed was that the state implement folks’s contracts on equal phrases, neutrally and pretty, with out giving one group or one other the higher hand. Every little thing else would observe.
Venice was less serene and indifferent to religion than portrayed. However, as a logo, the town was essential. And by drawing the battle as starkly as he does, Shakespeare means to ask whether or not the Venetian system can work the place intercommunal divisions concern bedrock beliefs and methods of life. His reply is just not hopeful. The dispute between Antonio and Shylock over charging curiosity displays a deeper battle about final values that commerce and industrial regulation can’t resolve. “The regulation of Venice can drive” the 2 males “to a short lived truce,” Bloom writes, “however in any essential occasion the battle will re-emerge, and every will attempt to destroy the spirit of the regulation; for every has a distinct manner of life which, if it have been universalized inside the metropolis, would destroy that of the opposite. They don’t have any widespread floor.”
The place such widespread floor doesn’t exist, the regulation can’t create it. Law, even a impartial regulation of contracts, inevitably requires judgment: Which agreements must be enforced, and which shouldn’t? And judgment inevitably will depend on the values folks convey to the regulation from the broader tradition. The place folks share values, regulation does a tolerably good job resolving their disputes. One celebration wins and the opposite loses, however each can settle for the legitimacy of the system. The place ethical divisions run deep and the stakes are excessive, this isn’t attainable. Law alone can’t persuade folks to just accept choices that violate their most simple sense of proper and unsuitable.
On the shut of the listening to, Shylock is led away to grow to be a Christian. Antonio receives half of Shylock’s items to make use of in belief for Shylock’s new son-in-law and daughter, and Shylock is compelled to depart the remainder of his property to the couple on his dying. Portia and Bassanio start their married life, with Bassanio as the brand new lord of Portia’s property in Belmont. Commerce in Venice resumes, however outsiders have discovered an essential lesson. They will make cash within the metropolis, however they’ll by no means be half of a real neighborhood, which requires greater than a shared dedication to purchasing and promoting.
Actual-world attorneys, in the event that they listen, may have discovered a lesson, too. In moments of deep social disaster, when rival communities with incompatible worldviews face off in opposition to each other, one can’t put a lot hope in regulation’s capability to settle the battle neutrally, in a manner everybody can settle for. In such circumstances, the regulation might proclaim its impartiality, however that shall be a pretense; one worldview or the opposite should essentially prevail. “The court docket awards it, and the regulation doth give it”—even when that requires a trick like Portia’s.
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